Elisa Audrey Eddie



Responding to pediatric patients is challenging for many Emergency Medical Services (EMS) due to unique psychosocial and physiological needs of a child. Pediatric patients transported by EMS have higher likelihood to require airway, ventilation and intravenous fluid interventions [1]. Thus, it is important for EMS responders to be trained on managing pediatric patients. Currently in Malaysia, there is no specific training for EMS responders in pediatric patient care.


Materials & Methods

We created a theme for the course “assessment and transport of a sick child” and obtained consensus among the experts on minimum standard of intervention for airway, oxygenation, circulation, trauma care, manual handling, transport and pharmacology. Consensus on simulation scenarios for common encounters for pediatric patients were also obtained and categorized to either trauma or medical.



A two-day training curriculum was developed. Pediatric assessment triangle is introduced as tool to identify an ill child. Airway intervention was focused on basic airway management with addition of supraglottic device. Intraosseous access is limited to use for situations of decompensated shock. Pharmacological intervention introduced are adrenaline, bronchodilators, antiepileptics and steroids. Several intervention was made to facilitate teaching of essential skills such as intravenous access model and use of soft toys as infant-models.



Sharing the skills and expertise with a uniform training will benefit children with life threatening illness or injury [2]. Whilst there are many training programs available from international agencies, creating a national program has the economy of cost effectiveness. The next step in this module is accreditation by National Committee on Resuscitation Training (NCORT).



Paediatric prehospital care

1. Casandra Quiñones et. al., Determinants of Pediatric EMS Utilization in Children with High-Acuity Conditions, Prehospital Emergency Care, 2018.
2. Pediatric Prehospital Medication Errors: A National Survey of Paramedics
EMAS Meeting 2018 Abtracts